The TRIPS Agreement is the only international agreement detailing the enforcement of intellectual property rights, including rules on evidence, interim measures, injunctions, damages and other sanctions. It stipulates that, under certain conditions, courts must have the right to order the order or destruction of property that infringes intellectual property rights. Intentional trademark infringement or commercial piracy must be punishable. Governments must also ensure that holders of intellectual property rights can benefit from the assistance of customs authorities to prevent the importation of counterfeit and illegally manufactured goods. While the WTO agreements entered into force on 1 January 1995, the TRIPS Agreement granted certain transitional periods to WTO members before being required to apply all its provisions. Members of industrialized countries have been given one year to ensure that their laws and practices are in line with the TRIPS Agreement. Developing countries and countries with economies in transition (under certain conditions) were granted a period of five years, until the year 2000. The least developed countries were initially 11 years old, until 2006, and generally until 1 July 2021. Part II of the TRIPS Agreement deals with different types of intellectual property rights and how to protect them. The aim is to ensure the existence of minimum standards of protection in all WTO members. The starting point is the commitment of the main international agreements of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) that already existed before the creation of the WTO: as in the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade Agreements (GATT) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the fundamental principles are the starting point of the TRIPS Agreement. And, as in the other two agreements, non-discrimination is at the forefront: national treatment (treatment of foreigners no less favourable than its own nationals) and most-favoured-nation treatment (no discrimination against nationals of trading partners). Infätisation is also a key principle in other intellectual property agreements outside the WTO.
Some areas are not covered by these agreements. In some cases, the standards of protection imposed were found to be insufficient. Thus, the TRIPS Agreement significantly complements the existing international standards. L`OMC compte 164 membres (y compris l`Union européenne) et 23 gouvernements observateurs (par exemple l`Iran, l`Iraq, le Bhoutan, la Libye, etc.). The TRIPS Agreement provides for further negotiations in the WTO to establish a multilateral system for the notification and registration of geographical indications for wines, which was later extended to spirit drinks. . . .