A bilateral tax treaty, a kind of tax treaty signed by two nations, is an agreement between legal systems that alleviates the problem of double taxation that can arise when tax legislation treats a person or company as a resident of more than one country. Many countries have tax treaties with other countries (also known as double taxation agreements or DBAs) to avoid or mitigate double taxation. Such contracts may include a number of taxes, including income taxes, inheritance tax, VAT or other taxes.  In addition to bilateral treaties, multilateral treaties also exist. For example, European Union (EU) countries are parties to a multilateral agreement on VAT under the auspices of the EU, while a joint mutual assistance treaty between the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is open to all countries. Tax treaties tend to reduce taxes in one contracting country for residents of the other contracting country in order to reduce double taxation of the same income. The agreement is the standard for the effective exchange of information within the meaning of the OECD`s initiative on harmful tax practices. This agreement, published in April 2002, is not a binding instrument, but includes two models of bilateral agreements. A number of bilateral agreements were based on this agreement.  The aim of this agreement is to promote international tax cooperation through the exchange of information. It was developed by the OECD Global Forum Working Group on Effective Information Exchange. This case study on the coordination of bilateral tax treaties and the OECD model tax treaty was developed by the tax contract division of the OECD`s Centre for Tax Policy and Management. Bilateral tax treaties are often based on conventions and guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental agency representing 35 countries.
Agreements can address many issues such as the taxation of different income categories (for example. B corporate profits, royalties, capital income, labour income, etc.), methods of eliminating double taxation (. B for example, the method of exemption, the method of credit, etc.) and provisions such as reciprocal exchange of information and tax collection assistance. An overview of the comprehensive bilateral tax treaty between Singapore and India to avoid double taxation of income. Find out more here. The agreement was born out of the OECD`s work on combating harmful tax practices. The lack of effective exchange of information is one of the main criteria for determining harmful tax practices. The aim of the working group was to develop a legal instrument for the effective exchange of information. Iceland has several agreements on tax issues with other countries. Persons permanently residing and subject to an unlimited tax obligation in one of the contracting states may be entitled to exemption or reduction in the taxation of income and property, in accordance with the provisions of each agreement, without the income being otherwise doubly taxed. Each agreement is different and it is therefore necessary to review the agreement in question in order to determine where the tax debt of the person concerned is actually located and the taxes prescribed by the agreement.